Feistel輪函式

每次Feistel輪函式內部,均經過4種運算,即:

  • 1、擴充套件置換:右側32位做擴充套件置換,擴充套件置換將32位輸入擴充套件成為48位輸出,使得擴充套件後輸出資料長度與48位子金鑰等長。
  • 2、異或運算:右側32位擴充套件置換為48位後,與48位子金鑰做異或運算。
  • 3、S盒置換:將異或運算後的48位結果,分成8個6位的塊,每塊通過S盒置換產生4位的輸出,8個塊S盒置換後組成32位的輸出。
    S盒置換的過程為:6位中取第1位和第6位組成行號,剩餘第2、3、4、5位組成列號,從S盒置換表中取出相應行、列的十進位制數,並轉化為4位二進位制數,即為S盒輸出。
  • 4、P盒置換:S盒置換後的32位輸出資料,進行P盒置換,仍然輸出為32位資料。

go標準庫中DES Feistel輪函式程式碼如下:

func feistel(right uint32, key uint64) (result uint32) {
    //右側32位擴充套件置換為48位,並與48位子金鑰做異或運算
    sBoxLocations := key ^ expandBlock(right)
    var sBoxResult uint32
    for i := uint8(0); i < 8; i++ {
        //sBoxLocations>>42、sBoxLocations <<= 6,按每6位分塊
        sBoxLocation := uint8(sBoxLocations>>42) & 0x3f
        sBoxLocations <<= 6
        //6位中取第1位和第6位組成行號
        row := (sBoxLocation & 0x1) | ((sBoxLocation & 0x20) >> 4)
        //剩餘第2、3、4、5位組成列號
        column := (sBoxLocation >> 1) & 0xf
        //feistelBox包括了S盒置換和P盒置換的實現
        sBoxResult ^= feistelBox[i][16*row+column]
    }
    return sBoxResult
}

var feistelBox [8][64]uint32

//P盒置換
func permuteBlock(src uint64, permutation []uint8) (block uint64) {
    for position, n := range permutation {
        bit := (src >> n) & 1
        block |= bit << uint((len(permutation)-1)-position)
    }
    return
}

//初始化feistelBox
func init() {
    for s := range sBoxes {
        for i := 0; i < 4; i++ {
            for j := 0; j < 16; j++ {
                f := uint64(sBoxes[s][i][j]) << (4 * (7 - uint(s)))
                f = permuteBlock(f, permutationFunction[:])
                feistelBox[s][16*i+j] = uint32(f)
            }
        }
    }
}
//程式碼位置src/crypto/des/block.go

附go標準庫中使用的擴充套件置換表和P盒置換表:

//擴充套件置換表
var expansionFunction = [48]byte{
    0, 31, 30, 29, 28, 27, 28, 27,
    26, 25, 24, 23, 24, 23, 22, 21,
    20, 19, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15,
    16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 12, 11,
    10, 9, 8, 7, 8, 7, 6, 5,
    4, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 31,
}

//P盒置換表
var permutationFunction = [32]byte{
    16, 25, 12, 11, 3, 20, 4, 15,
    31, 17, 9, 6, 27, 14, 1, 22,
    30, 24, 8, 18, 0, 5, 29, 23,
    13, 19, 2, 26, 10, 21, 28, 7,
}
//程式碼位置src/crypto/des/const.go

附go標準庫中使用的S盒置換表:

var sBoxes = [8][4][16]uint8{
    // S-box 1
    {
        {14, 4, 13, 1, 2, 15, 11, 8, 3, 10, 6, 12, 5, 9, 0, 7},
        {0, 15, 7, 4, 14, 2, 13, 1, 10, 6, 12, 11, 9, 5, 3, 8},
        {4, 1, 14, 8, 13, 6, 2, 11, 15, 12, 9, 7, 3, 10, 5, 0},
        {15, 12, 8, 2, 4, 9, 1, 7, 5, 11, 3, 14, 10, 0, 6, 13},
    },
    // S-box 2
    {
        {15, 1, 8, 14, 6, 11, 3, 4, 9, 7, 2, 13, 12, 0, 5, 10},
        {3, 13, 4, 7, 15, 2, 8, 14, 12, 0, 1, 10, 6, 9, 11, 5},
        {0, 14, 7, 11, 10, 4, 13, 1, 5, 8, 12, 6, 9, 3, 2, 15},
        {13, 8, 10, 1, 3, 15, 4, 2, 11, 6, 7, 12, 0, 5, 14, 9},
    },
    // S-box 3
    {
        {10, 0, 9, 14, 6, 3, 15, 5, 1, 13, 12, 7, 11, 4, 2, 8},
        {13, 7, 0, 9, 3, 4, 6, 10, 2, 8, 5, 14, 12, 11, 15, 1},
        {13, 6, 4, 9, 8, 15, 3, 0, 11, 1, 2, 12, 5, 10, 14, 7},
        {1, 10, 13, 0, 6, 9, 8, 7, 4, 15, 14, 3, 11, 5, 2, 12},
    },
    // S-box 4
    {
        {7, 13, 14, 3, 0, 6, 9, 10, 1, 2, 8, 5, 11, 12, 4, 15},
        {13, 8, 11, 5, 6, 15, 0, 3, 4, 7, 2, 12, 1, 10, 14, 9},
        {10, 6, 9, 0, 12, 11, 7, 13, 15, 1, 3, 14, 5, 2, 8, 4},
        {3, 15, 0, 6, 10, 1, 13, 8, 9, 4, 5, 11, 12, 7, 2, 14},
    },
    // S-box 5
    {
        {2, 12, 4, 1, 7, 10, 11, 6, 8, 5, 3, 15, 13, 0, 14, 9},
        {14, 11, 2, 12, 4, 7, 13, 1, 5, 0, 15, 10, 3, 9, 8, 6},
        {4, 2, 1, 11, 10, 13, 7, 8, 15, 9, 12, 5, 6, 3, 0, 14},
        {11, 8, 12, 7, 1, 14, 2, 13, 6, 15, 0, 9, 10, 4, 5, 3},
    },
    // S-box 6
    {
        {12, 1, 10, 15, 9, 2, 6, 8, 0, 13, 3, 4, 14, 7, 5, 11},
        {10, 15, 4, 2, 7, 12, 9, 5, 6, 1, 13, 14, 0, 11, 3, 8},
        {9, 14, 15, 5, 2, 8, 12, 3, 7, 0, 4, 10, 1, 13, 11, 6},
        {4, 3, 2, 12, 9, 5, 15, 10, 11, 14, 1, 7, 6, 0, 8, 13},
    },
    // S-box 7
    {
        {4, 11, 2, 14, 15, 0, 8, 13, 3, 12, 9, 7, 5, 10, 6, 1},
        {13, 0, 11, 7, 4, 9, 1, 10, 14, 3, 5, 12, 2, 15, 8, 6},
        {1, 4, 11, 13, 12, 3, 7, 14, 10, 15, 6, 8, 0, 5, 9, 2},
        {6, 11, 13, 8, 1, 4, 10, 7, 9, 5, 0, 15, 14, 2, 3, 12},
    },
    // S-box 8
    {
        {13, 2, 8, 4, 6, 15, 11, 1, 10, 9, 3, 14, 5, 0, 12, 7},
        {1, 15, 13, 8, 10, 3, 7, 4, 12, 5, 6, 11, 0, 14, 9, 2},
        {7, 11, 4, 1, 9, 12, 14, 2, 0, 6, 10, 13, 15, 3, 5, 8},
        {2, 1, 14, 7, 4, 10, 8, 13, 15, 12, 9, 0, 3, 5, 6, 11},
    },
}
//程式碼位置src/crypto/des/const.go

3DES

DES是一個經典的對稱加密演算法,但也缺陷明顯,即56位的金鑰安全性不足,已被證實可以在短時間內破解。
為解決此問題,出現了3DES,也稱Triple DES,3DES為DES向AES過渡的加密演算法,它使用3條56位的金鑰對資料進行三次加密。
為了相容普通的DES,3DES並沒有直接使用加密->加密->加密的方式,而是採用了加密->解密->加密的方式。
當三重金鑰均相同時,前兩步相互抵消,相當於僅實現了一次加密,因此可實現對普通DES加密演算法的相容。
3DES解密過程,與加密過程相反,即逆序使用金鑰。

go標準中3DES加密演算法的實現如下:

type tripleDESCipher struct {
    cipher1, cipher2, cipher3 desCipher
}

func NewTripleDESCipher(key []byte) (cipher.Block, error) {
    if len(key) != 24 {
        return nil, KeySizeError(len(key))
    }

    c := new(tripleDESCipher)
    c.cipher1.generateSubkeys(key[:8])
    c.cipher2.generateSubkeys(key[8:16])
    c.cipher3.generateSubkeys(key[16:])
    return c, nil
}

//3DES加密
func (c *tripleDESCipher) Encrypt(dst, src []byte) {
    c.cipher1.Encrypt(dst, src)
    c.cipher2.Decrypt(dst, dst)
    c.cipher3.Encrypt(dst, dst)
}

//3DES解密
func (c *tripleDESCipher) Decrypt(dst, src []byte) {
    c.cipher3.Decrypt(dst, src)
    c.cipher2.Encrypt(dst, dst)
    c.cipher1.Decrypt(dst, dst)
}
//程式碼位置src/crypto/des/cipher.go

後記

相比DES,3DES因金鑰長度變長,安全性有所提高,但其處理速度不高。
因此又出現了AES加密演算法,AES較於3DES速度更快、安全性更高,後續單獨總結。

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