在前面一篇文章中,介紹了在Android系統中Binder程序間通訊機制中的Server角色是如何獲得Service Manager遠端介面的,即defaultServiceManager函式的實現。Server獲得了Service Manager遠端介面之後,就要把自己的Service新增到Service Manager中去,然後把自己啟動起來,等待Client的請求。本文將通過分析原始碼瞭解Server的啟動過程是怎麼樣的。

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        本文通過一個具體的例子來說明Binder機制中Server的啟動過程。我們知道,在Android系統中,提供了多媒體播放的功能,這個功能是以服務的形式來提供的。這裡,我們就通過分析MediaPlayerService的實現來了解Media Server的啟動過程。

        首先,看一下MediaPlayerService的類圖,以便我們理解下面要描述的內容。

        我們將要介紹的主角MediaPlayerService繼承於BnMediaPlayerService類,熟悉Binder機制的同學應該知道BnMediaPlayerService是一個Binder Native類,用來處理Client請求的。BnMediaPlayerService繼承於BnInterface<IMediaPlayerService>類,BnInterface是一個模板類,它定義在frameworks/base/include/binder/IInterface.h檔案中:

template<typename INTERFACE>class BnInterface : public INTERFACE, public BBinder{public:    virtual sp<IInterface>      queryLocalInterface(const String16& _descriptor);    virtual const String16&     getInterfaceDescriptor() const;protected:    virtual IBinder*            onAsBinder();};
       這裡可以看出,BnMediaPlayerService實際是繼承了IMediaPlayerService和BBinder類。IMediaPlayerService和BBinder類又分別繼承了IInterface和IBinder類,IInterface和IBinder類又同時繼承了RefBase類。

       實際上,BnMediaPlayerService並不是直接接收到Client處傳送過來的請求,而是使用了IPCThreadState接收Client處傳送過來的請求,而IPCThreadState又藉助了ProcessState類來與Binder驅動程式互動。有關IPCThreadState和ProcessState的關係,可以參考上一篇文章淺談Android系統程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder中的Server和Client獲得Service Manager介面之路,接下來也會有相應的描述。IPCThreadState接收到了Client處的請求後,就會呼叫BBinder類的transact函式,並傳入相關引數,BBinder類的transact函式最終呼叫BnMediaPlayerService類的onTransact函式,於是,就開始真正地處理Client的請求了。

      瞭解了MediaPlayerService類結構之後,就要開始進入到本文的主題了。

      首先,看看MediaPlayerService是如何啟動的。啟動MediaPlayerService的程式碼位於frameworks/base/media/mediaserver/main_mediaserver.cpp檔案中:

int main(int argc, char** argv){    sp<ProcessState> proc(ProcessState::self());    sp<IServiceManager> sm = defaultServiceManager();    LOGI("ServiceManager: %p", sm.get());    AudioFlinger::instantiate();    MediaPlayerService::instantiate();    CameraService::instantiate();    AudioPolicyService::instantiate();    ProcessState::self()->startThreadPool();    IPCThreadState::self()->joinThreadPool();}
       這裡我們不關注AudioFlinger和CameraService相關的程式碼。

       先看下面這句程式碼:

   sp<ProcessState> proc(ProcessState::self());
       這句程式碼的作用是通過ProcessState::self()呼叫建立一個ProcessState例項。ProcessState::self()是ProcessState類的一個靜態成員變數,定義在frameworks/base/libs/binder/ProcessState.cpp檔案中:
sp<ProcessState> ProcessState::self(){    if (gProcess != NULL) return gProcess;        AutoMutex _l(gProcessMutex);    if (gProcess == NULL) gProcess = new ProcessState;    return gProcess;}
       這裡可以看出,這個函式作用是返回一個全域性唯一的ProcessState例項gProcess。全域性唯一例項變數gProcess定義在frameworks/base/libs/binder/Static.cpp檔案中:
Mutex gProcessMutex;sp<ProcessState> gProcess;
       再來看ProcessState的建構函式:
ProcessState::ProcessState()    : mDriverFD(open_driver())    , mVMStart(MAP_FAILED)    , mManagesContexts(false)    , mBinderContextCheckFunc(NULL)    , mBinderContextUserData(NULL)    , mThreadPoolStarted(false)    , mThreadPoolSeq(1){    if (mDriverFD >= 0) {        // XXX Ideally, there should be a specific define for whether we        // have mmap (or whether we could possibly have the kernel module        // availabla).#if !defined(HAVE_WIN32_IPC)        // mmap the binder, providing a chunk of virtual address space to receive transactions.        mVMStart = mmap(0, BINDER_VM_SIZE, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_NORESERVE, mDriverFD, 0);        if (mVMStart == MAP_FAILED) {            // *sigh*            LOGE("Using /dev/binder failed: unable to mmap transaction memory.\n");            close(mDriverFD);            mDriverFD = -1;        }#else        mDriverFD = -1;#endif    }    if (mDriverFD < 0) {        // Need to run without the driver, starting our own thread pool.    }}
        這個函式有兩個關鍵地方,一是通過open_driver函式開啟Binder裝置檔案/dev/binder,並將開啟裝置檔案描述符儲存在成員變數mDriverFD中;二是通過mmap來把裝置檔案/dev/binder對映到記憶體中。

        先看open_driver函式的實現,這個函式同樣位於frameworks/base/libs/binder/ProcessState.cpp檔案中:

static int open_driver(){    if (gSingleProcess) {        return -1;    }    int fd = open("/dev/binder", O_RDWR);    if (fd >= 0) {        fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC);        int vers;#if defined(HAVE_ANDROID_OS)        status_t result = ioctl(fd, BINDER_VERSION, &vers);#else        status_t result = -1;        errno = EPERM;#endif        if (result == -1) {            LOGE("Binder ioctl to obtain version failed: %s", strerror(errno));            close(fd);            fd = -1;        }        if (result != 0 || vers != BINDER_CURRENT_PROTOCOL_VERSION) {            LOGE("Binder driver protocol does not match user space protocol!");            close(fd);            fd = -1;        }#if defined(HAVE_ANDROID_OS)        size_t maxThreads = 15;        result = ioctl(fd, BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS, &maxThreads);        if (result == -1) {            LOGE("Binder ioctl to set max threads failed: %s", strerror(errno));        }#endif            } else {        LOGW("Opening '/dev/binder' failed: %s\n", strerror(errno));    }    return fd;}
        這個函式的作用主要是通過open檔案操作函式來開啟/dev/binder裝置檔案,然後再呼叫ioctl檔案控制函式來分別執行BINDER_VERSION和BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS兩個命令來和Binder驅動程式進行互動,前者用於獲得當前Binder驅動程式的版本號,後者用於通知Binder驅動程式,MediaPlayerService最多可同時啟動15個執行緒來處理Client端的請求。

        open在Binder驅動程式中的具體實現,請參考前面一篇文章淺談Service Manager成為Android程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder守護程序之路,這裡不再重複描述。開啟/dev/binder裝置檔案後,Binder驅動程式就為MediaPlayerService程序建立了一個struct binder_proc結構體例項來維護MediaPlayerService程序上下文相關資訊。

        我們來看一下ioctl檔案操作函式執行BINDER_VERSION命令的過程:

status_t result = ioctl(fd, BINDER_VERSION, &vers);
        這個函式呼叫最終進入到Binder驅動程式的binder_ioctl函式中,我們只關注BINDER_VERSION相關的部分邏輯:
static long binder_ioctl(struct file *filp, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)int ret; struct binder_proc *proc = filp->private_data; struct binder_thread *thread; unsigned int size = _IOC_SIZE(cmd); void __user *ubuf = (void __user *)arg; /*printk(KERN_INFO "binder_ioctl: %d:%d %x %lx\n", proc->pid, current->pid, cmd, arg);*/ ret = wait_event_interruptible(binder_user_error_wait, binder_stop_on_user_error < 2); if (ret)  return ret; mutex_lock(&binder_lock); thread = binder_get_thread(proc); if (thread == NULL) {  ret = -ENOMEM;  goto err; } switch (cmd) { ...... case BINDER_VERSION:  if (size != sizeof(struct binder_version)) {   ret = -EINVAL;   goto err;  }  if (put_user(BINDER_CURRENT_PROTOCOL_VERSION, &((struct binder_version *)ubuf)->protocol_version)) {   ret = -EINVAL;   goto err;  }  break; ...... } ret = 0;err:        ...... return ret;}

        很簡單,只是將BINDER_CURRENT_PROTOCOL_VERSION寫入到傳入的引數arg指向的使用者緩衝區中去就返回了。BINDER_CURRENT_PROTOCOL_VERSION是一個巨集,定義在kernel/common/drivers/staging/android/binder.h檔案中:

/* This is the current protocol version. */#define BINDER_CURRENT_PROTOCOL_VERSION 7
       這裡為什麼要把ubuf轉換成struct binder_version之後,再通過其protocol_version成員變數再來寫入呢,轉了一圈,最終內容還是寫入到ubuf中。我們看一下struct binder_version的定義就會明白,同樣是在kernel/common/drivers/staging/android/binder.h檔案中:
/* Use with BINDER_VERSION, driver fills in fields. */struct binder_version { /* driver protocol version -- increment with incompatible change */ signed long protocol_version;};
        從註釋中可以看出來,這裡是考慮到相容性,因為以後很有可能不是用signed long來表示版本號。

        這裡有一個重要的地方要注意的是,由於這裡是開啟裝置檔案/dev/binder之後,第一次進入到binder_ioctl函式,因此,這裡呼叫binder_get_thread的時候,就會為當前執行緒建立一個struct binder_thread結構體變數來維護執行緒上下文資訊,具體可以參考淺談Service Manager成為Android程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder守護程序之路一文。

        接著我們再來看一下ioctl檔案操作函式執行BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS命令的過程:

result = ioctl(fd, BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS, &maxThreads);

        這個函式呼叫最終進入到Binder驅動程式的binder_ioctl函式中,我們只關注BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS相關的部分邏輯:

static long binder_ioctl(struct file *filp, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)int ret; struct binder_proc *proc = filp->private_data; struct binder_thread *thread; unsigned int size = _IOC_SIZE(cmd); void __user *ubuf = (void __user *)arg; /*printk(KERN_INFO "binder_ioctl: %d:%d %x %lx\n", proc->pid, current->pid, cmd, arg);*/ ret = wait_event_interruptible(binder_user_error_wait, binder_stop_on_user_error < 2); if (ret)  return ret; mutex_lock(&binder_lock); thread = binder_get_thread(proc); if (thread == NULL) {  ret = -ENOMEM;  goto err; } switch (cmd) { ...... case BINDER_SET_MAX_THREADS:  if (copy_from_user(&proc->max_threads, ubuf, sizeof(proc->max_threads))) {   ret = -EINVAL;   goto err;  }  break; ...... } ret = 0;err: ...... return ret;}
        這裡實現也是非常簡單,只是簡單地把使用者傳進來的引數儲存在proc->max_threads中就完畢了。注意,這裡再呼叫binder_get_thread函式的時候,就可以在proc->threads中找到當前執行緒對應的struct binder_thread結構了,因為前面已經建立好並儲存在proc->threads紅黑樹中。

        回到ProcessState的建構函式中,這裡還通過mmap函式來把裝置檔案/dev/binder對映到記憶體中,這個函式在淺談Service Manager成為Android程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder守護程序之路一文也已經有詳細介紹,這裡不再重複描述。巨集BINDER_VM_SIZE就定義在ProcessState.cpp檔案中:

#define BINDER_VM_SIZE ((1*1024*1024) - (4096 *2))
        mmap函式呼叫完成之後,Binder驅動程式就為當前程序預留了BINDER_VM_SIZE大小的記憶體空間了。

        這樣,ProcessState全域性唯一變數gProcess就建立完畢了,回到frameworks/base/media/mediaserver/main_mediaserver.cpp檔案中的main函式,下一步是呼叫defaultServiceManager函式來獲得Service Manager的遠端介面,這個已經在上一篇文章

        再接下來,就進入到MediaPlayerService::instantiate函式把MediaPlayerService新增到Service Manger中去了。這個函式定義在frameworks/base/media/libmediaplayerservice/MediaPlayerService.cpp檔案中:

void MediaPlayerService::instantiate() {    defaultServiceManager()->addService(            String16("media.player"), new MediaPlayerService());}
        我們重點看一下IServiceManger::addService的過程,這有助於我們加深對Binder機制的理解。

        在上一篇文章淺談Android系統程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder中的Server和Client獲得Service Manager介面之路中說到,defaultServiceManager返回的實際是一個BpServiceManger類例項,因此,我們看一下BpServiceManger::addService的實現,這個函式實現在frameworks/base/libs/binder/IServiceManager.cpp檔案中:

class BpServiceManager : public BpInterface<IServiceManager>{public: BpServiceManager(const sp<IBinder>& impl)  : BpInterface<IServiceManager>(impl) { } ...... virtual status_t addService(const String16& name, const sp<IBinder>& service) {  Parcel data, reply;  data.writeInterfaceToken(IServiceManager::getInterfaceDescriptor());  data.writeString16(name);  data.writeStrongBinder(service);  status_t err = remote()->transact(ADD_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data, &reply);  return err == NO_ERROR ? reply.readExceptionCode()  } ......};
         這裡的Parcel類是用來於序列化程序間通訊資料用的。

         先來看這一句的呼叫:

data.writeInterfaceToken(IServiceManager::getInterfaceDescriptor());
         IServiceManager::getInterfaceDescriptor()返回來的是一個字串,即"android.os.IServiceManager",具體可以參考IServiceManger的實現。我們看一下Parcel::writeInterfaceToken的實現,位於frameworks/base/libs/binder/Parcel.cpp檔案中:
// Write RPC headers.  (previously just the interface token)status_t Parcel::writeInterfaceToken(const String16& interface){    writeInt32(IPCThreadState::self()->getStrictModePolicy() |               STRICT_MODE_PENALTY_GATHER);    // currently the interface identification token is just its name as a string    return writeString16(interface);}
         它的作用是寫入一個整數和一個字串到Parcel中去。

         再來看下面的呼叫:

data.writeString16(name);
        這裡又是寫入一個字串到Parcel中去,這裡的name即是上面傳進來的“media.player”字串。

        往下看:

data.writeStrongBinder(service);
        這裡定入一個Binder物件到Parcel去。我們重點看一下這個函式的實現,因為它涉及到程序間傳輸Binder實體的問題,比較複雜,需要重點關注,同時,也是理解Binder機制的一個重點所在。注意,這裡的service引數是一個MediaPlayerService物件。
status_t Parcel::writeStrongBinder(const sp<IBinder>& val){    return flatten_binder(ProcessState::self(), val, this);}
        看到flatten_binder函式,是不是似曾相識的感覺?我們在前面一篇文章淺談Service Manager成為Android程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder守護程序之路中,曾經提到在Binder驅動程式中,使用struct flat_binder_object來表示傳輸中的一個binder物件,它的定義如下所示:
/* * This is the flattened representation of a Binder object for transfer * between processes.  The 'offsets' supplied as part of a binder transaction * contains offsets into the data where these structures occur.  The Binder * driver takes care of re-writing the structure type and data as it moves * between processes. */struct flat_binder_object { /* 8 bytes for large_flat_header. */ unsigned long  type; unsigned long  flags; /* 8 bytes of data. */ union {  void  *binder; /* local object */  signed long handle;  /* remote object */ }; /* extra data associated with local object */ void   *cookie;};
        各個成員變數的含義請參考資料Android Binder設計與實現

        我們進入到flatten_binder函式看看:

status_t flatten_binder(const sp<ProcessState>& proc,    const sp<IBinder>& binder, Parcel* out){    flat_binder_object obj;        obj.flags = 0x7f | FLAT_BINDER_FLAG_ACCEPTS_FDS;    if (binder != NULL) {        IBinder *local = binder->localBinder();        if (!local) {            BpBinder *proxy = binder->remoteBinder();            if (proxy == NULL) {                LOGE("null proxy");            }            const int32_t handle = proxy ? proxy->handle() : 0;            obj.type = BINDER_TYPE_HANDLE;            obj.handle = handle;            obj.cookie = NULL;        } else {            obj.type = BINDER_TYPE_BINDER;            obj.binder = local->getWeakRefs();            obj.cookie = local;        }    } else {        obj.type = BINDER_TYPE_BINDER;        obj.binder = NULL;        obj.cookie = NULL;    }        return finish_flatten_binder(binder, obj, out);}
        首先是初始化flat_binder_object的flags域:
obj.flags = 0x7f | FLAT_BINDER_FLAG_ACCEPTS_FDS;
        0x7f表示處理本Binder實體請求資料包的執行緒的最低優先順序,FLAT_BINDER_FLAG_ACCEPTS_FDS表示這個Binder實體可以接受檔案描述符,Binder實體在收到檔案描述符時,就會在本程序中開啟這個檔案。

       傳進來的binder即為MediaPlayerService::instantiate函式中new出來的MediaPlayerService例項,因此,不為空。又由於MediaPlayerService繼承自BBinder類,它是一個本地Binder實體,因此binder->localBinder返回一個BBinder指標,而且肯定不為空,於是執行下面語句:

obj.type = BINDER_TYPE_BINDER;obj.binder = local->getWeakRefs();obj.cookie = local;
        設定了flat_binder_obj的其他成員變數,注意,指向這個Binder實體地址的指標local儲存在flat_binder_obj的成員變數cookie中。

        函式呼叫finish_flatten_binder來將這個flat_binder_obj寫入到Parcel中去:

inline static status_t finish_flatten_binder(    const sp<IBinder>& binder, const flat_binder_object& flat, Parcel* out){    return out->writeObject(flat, false);}
       Parcel::writeObject的實現如下:
status_t Parcel::writeObject(const flat_binder_object& val, bool nullMetaData){    const bool enoughData = (mDataPos+sizeof(val)) <= mDataCapacity;    const bool enoughObjects = mObjectsSize < mObjectsCapacity;    if (enoughData && enoughObjects) {restart_write:        *reinterpret_cast<flat_binder_object*>(mData+mDataPos) = val;                // Need to write meta-data?        if (nullMetaData || val.binder != NULL) {            mObjects[mObjectsSize] = mDataPos;            acquire_object(ProcessState::self(), val, this);            mObjectsSize++;        }                // remember if it's a file descriptor        if (val.type == BINDER_TYPE_FD) {            mHasFds = mFdsKnown = true;        }        return finishWrite(sizeof(flat_binder_object));    }    if (!enoughData) {        const status_t err = growData(sizeof(val));        if (err != NO_ERROR) return err;    }    if (!enoughObjects) {        size_t newSize = ((mObjectsSize+2)*3)/2;        size_t* objects = (size_t*)realloc(mObjects, newSize*sizeof(size_t));        if (objects == NULL) return NO_MEMORY;        mObjects = objects;        mObjectsCapacity = newSize;    }        goto restart_write;}
        這裡除了把flat_binder_obj寫到Parcel裡面之內,還要記錄這個flat_binder_obj在Parcel裡面的偏移位置:
mObjects[mObjectsSize] = mDataPos;
       這裡因為,如果程序間傳輸的資料間帶有Binder物件的時候,Binder驅動程式需要作進一步的處理,以維護各個Binder實體的一致性,下面我們將會看到Binder驅動程式是怎麼處理這些Binder物件的。

       再回到BpServiceManager::addService函式中,呼叫下面語句:

status_t err = remote()->transact(ADD_SERVICE_TRANSACTION, data, &reply);
       回到淺談Android系統程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder中的Server和Client獲得Service Manager介面之路一文中的類圖中去看一下,這裡的remote成員函式來自於BpRefBase類,它返回一個BpBinder指標。因此,我們繼續進入到BpBinder::transact函式中去看看:
status_t BpBinder::transact(    uint32_t code, const Parcel& data, Parcel* reply, uint32_t flags){    // Once a binder has died, it will never come back to life.    if (mAlive) {        status_t status = IPCThreadState::self()->transact(            mHandle, code, data, reply, flags);        if (status == DEAD_OBJECT) mAlive = 0;        return status;    }    return DEAD_OBJECT;}
       這裡又呼叫了IPCThreadState::transact進執行實際的操作。注意,這裡的mHandle為0,code為ADD_SERVICE_TRANSACTION。ADD_SERVICE_TRANSACTION是上面以引數形式傳進來的,那mHandle為什麼是0呢?因為這裡表示的是Service Manager遠端介面,它的控制代碼值一定是0,具體請參考淺談Android系統程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder中的Server和Client獲得Service Manager介面之路一文。       再進入到IPCThreadState::transact函式,看看做了些什麼事情:
status_t IPCThreadState::transact(int32_t handle,                                  uint32_t code, const Parcel& data,                                  Parcel* reply, uint32_t flags){    status_t err = data.errorCheck();    flags |= TF_ACCEPT_FDS;    IF_LOG_TRANSACTIONS() {        TextOutput::Bundle _b(alog);        alog << "BC_TRANSACTION thr " << (void*)pthread_self() << " / hand "            << handle << " / code " << TypeCode(code) << ": "            << indent << data << dedent << endl;    }        if (err == NO_ERROR) {        LOG_ONEWAY(">>>> SEND from pid %d uid %d %s", getpid(), getuid(),            (flags & TF_ONE_WAY) == 0 ? "READ REPLY" : "ONE WAY");        err = writeTransactionData(BC_TRANSACTION, flags, handle, code, data, NULL);    }        if (err != NO_ERROR) {        if (reply) reply->setError(err);        return (mLastError = err);    }        if ((flags & TF_ONE_WAY) == 0) {        #if 0        if (code == 4) { // relayout            LOGI(">>>>>> CALLING transaction 4");        } else {            LOGI(">>>>>> CALLING transaction %d", code);        }        #endif        if (reply) {            err = waitForResponse(reply);        } else {            Parcel fakeReply;            err = waitForResponse(&fakeReply);        }        #if 0        if (code == 4) { // relayout            LOGI("<<<<<< RETURNING transaction 4");        } else {            LOGI("<<<<<< RETURNING transaction %d", code);        }        #endif                IF_LOG_TRANSACTIONS() {            TextOutput::Bundle _b(alog);            alog << "BR_REPLY thr " << (void*)pthread_self() << " / hand "                << handle << ": ";            if (reply) alog << indent << *reply << dedent << endl;            else alog << "(none requested)" << endl;        }    } else {        err = waitForResponse(NULL, NULL);    }        return err;}
        IPCThreadState::transact函式的引數flags是一個預設值為0的引數,上面沒有傳相應的實參進來,因此,這裡就為0。

        函式首先呼叫writeTransactionData函式準備好一個struct binder_transaction_data結構體變數,這個是等一下要傳輸給Binder驅動程式的。struct binder_transaction_data的定義我們在淺談Service Manager成為Android程序間通訊(IPC)機制Binder守護程序之路一文中有詳細描述,讀者不妨回過去讀一下。這裡為了方便描述,將struct binder_transaction_data的定義再次列出來:

struct binder_transaction_data { /* The first two are only used for bcTRANSACTION and brTRANSACTION,  * identifying the target and contents of the transaction.  */ union {  size_t handle; /* target descriptor of command transaction */  void *ptr; /* target descriptor of return transaction */ } target; void  *cookie; /* target object cookie */ unsigned int code;  /* transaction command */ /* General information about the transaction. */ unsigned int flags; pid_t  sender_pid; uid_t  sender_euid; size_t  data_size; /* number of bytes of data */ size_t  offsets_size; /* number of bytes of offsets */ /* If this transaction is inline, the data immediately  * follows here; otherwise, it ends with a pointer to  * the data buffer.  */ union {  struct {   /* transaction data */   const void *buffer;   /* offsets from buffer to flat_binder_object structs */   const void *offsets;  } ptr;  uint8_t buf[8]; } data;};
         writeTransactionData函式的實現如下:
status_t IPCThreadState::writeTransactionData(int32_t cmd, uint32_t binderFlags,    int32_t handle, uint32_t code, const Parcel& data, status_t* statusBuffer){    binder_transaction_data tr;    tr.target.handle = handle;    tr.code = code;    tr.flags = binderFlags;        const status_t err = data.errorCheck();    if (err == NO_ERROR) {        tr.data_size = data.ipcDataSize();        tr.data.ptr.buffer = data.ipcData();        tr.offsets_size = data.ipcObjectsCount()*sizeof(size_t);        tr.data.ptr.offsets = data.ipcObjects();    } else if (statusBuffer) {        tr.flags |= TF_STATUS_CODE;        *statusBuffer = err;        tr.data_size = sizeof(status_t);        tr.data.ptr.buffer = statusBuffer;        tr.offsets_size = 0;        tr.data.ptr.offsets = NULL;    } else {        return (mLastError = err);    }        mOut.writeInt32(cmd);    mOut.write(&tr, sizeof(tr));        return NO_ERROR;}

        注意,這裡的cmd為BC_TRANSACTION。 這個函式很簡單,在這個場景下,就是執行下面語句來初始化本地變數tr:

tr.data_size = data.ipcDataSize();tr.data.ptr.buffer = data.ipcData();tr.offsets_size = data.ipcObjectsCount()*sizeof(size_t);tr.data.ptr.offsets = data.ipcObjects();
       回憶一下上面的內容,寫入到tr.data.ptr.buffer的內容相當於下面的內容:
writeInt32(IPCThreadState::self()->getStrictModePolicy() |               STRICT_MODE_PENALTY_GATHER);writeString16("android.os.IServiceManager");writeString16("media.player");writeStrongBinder(new MediaPlayerService());
       其中包含了一個Binder實體MediaPlayerService,因此需要設定tr.offsets_size就為1,tr.data.ptr.offsets就指向了這個MediaPlayerService的地址在tr.data.ptr.buffer中的偏移量。最後,將tr的內容儲存在IPCThreadState的成員變數mOut中。       回到IPCThreadState::transact函式中,接下去看,(flags & TF_ONE_WAY) == 0為true,並且reply不為空,所以最終進入到waitForResponse(reply)這條路徑來。我們看一下waitForResponse函式的實現:
status_t IPCThreadState::waitForResponse(Parcel *reply, status_t *acquireResult){    int32_t cmd;    int32_t err;    while (1) {        if ((err=talkWithDriver()) < NO_ERROR) break;        err = mIn.errorCheck();        if (err < NO_ERROR) break;        if (mIn.dataAvail() == 0) continue;                cmd = mIn.readInt32();                IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {            alog << "Processing waitForResponse Command: "                << getReturnString(cmd) << endl;        }        switch (cmd) {        case BR_TRANSACTION_COMPLETE:            if (!reply && !acquireResult) goto finish;            break;                case BR_DEAD_REPLY:            err = DEAD_OBJECT;            goto finish;        case BR_FAILED_REPLY:            err = FAILED_TRANSACTION;            goto finish;                case BR_ACQUIRE_RESULT:            {                LOG_ASSERT(acquireResult != NULL, "Unexpected brACQUIRE_RESULT");                const int32_t result = mIn.readInt32();                if (!acquireResult) continue;                *acquireResult = result ? NO_ERROR : INVALID_OPERATION;            }            goto finish;                case BR_REPLY:            {                binder_transaction_data tr;                err = mIn.read(&tr, sizeof(tr));                LOG_ASSERT(err == NO_ERROR, "Not enough command data for brREPLY");                if (err != NO_ERROR) goto finish;                if (reply) {                    if ((tr.flags & TF_STATUS_CODE) == 0) {                        reply->ipcSetDataReference(                            reinterpret_cast<const uint8_t*>(tr.data.ptr.buffer),                            tr.data_size,                            reinterpret_cast<const size_t*>(tr.data.ptr.offsets),                            tr.offsets_size/sizeof(size_t),                            freeBuffer, this);                    } else {                        err = *static_cast<const status_t*>(tr.data.ptr.buffer);                        freeBuffer(NULL,                            reinterpret_cast<const uint8_t*>(tr.data.ptr.buffer),                            tr.data_size,                            reinterpret_cast<const size_t*>(tr.data.ptr.offsets),                            tr.offsets_size/sizeof(size_t), this);                    }                } else {                    freeBuffer(NULL,                        reinterpret_cast<const uint8_t*>(tr.data.ptr.buffer),                        tr.data_size,                        reinterpret_cast<const size_t*>(tr.data.ptr.offsets),                        tr.offsets_size/sizeof(size_t), this);                    continue;                }            }            goto finish;        default:            err = executeCommand(cmd);            if (err != NO_ERROR) goto finish;            break;        }    }finish:    if (err != NO_ERROR) {        if (acquireResult) *acquireResult = err;        if (reply) reply->setError(err);        mLastError = err;    }        return err;}
        這個函式雖然很長,但是主要呼叫了talkWithDriver函式來與Binder驅動程式進行互動:
status_t IPCThreadState::talkWithDriver(bool doReceive){    LOG_ASSERT(mProcess->mDriverFD >= 0, "Binder driver is not opened");        binder_write_read bwr;        // Is the read buffer empty?    const bool needRead = mIn.dataPosition() >= mIn.dataSize();        // We don't want to write anything if we are still reading    // from data left in the input buffer and the caller    // has requested to read the next data.    const size_t outAvail = (!doReceive || needRead) ? mOut.dataSize() : 0;        bwr.write_size = outAvail;    bwr.write_buffer = (long unsigned int)mOut.data();    // This is what we'll read.    if (doReceive && needRead) {        bwr.read_size = mIn.dataCapacity();        bwr.read_buffer = (long unsigned int)mIn.data();    } else {        bwr.read_size = 0;    }        IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {        TextOutput::Bundle _b(alog);        if (outAvail != 0) {            alog << "Sending commands to driver: " << indent;            const void* cmds = (const void*)bwr.write_buffer;            const void* end = ((const uint8_t*)cmds)+bwr.write_size;            alog << HexDump(cmds, bwr.write_size) << endl;            while (cmds < end) cmds = printCommand(alog, cmds);            alog << dedent;        }        alog << "Size of receive buffer: " << bwr.read_size            << ", needRead: " << needRead << ", doReceive: " << doReceive << endl;    }        // Return immediately if there is nothing to do.    if ((bwr.write_size == 0) && (bwr.read_size == 0)) return NO_ERROR;        bwr.write_consumed = 0;    bwr.read_consumed = 0;    status_t err;    do {        IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {            alog << "About to read/write, write size = " << mOut.dataSize() << endl;        }#if defined(HAVE_ANDROID_OS)        if (ioctl(mProcess->mDriverFD, BINDER_WRITE_READ, &bwr) >= 0)            err = NO_ERROR;        else            err = -errno;#else        err = INVALID_OPERATION;#endif        IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {            alog << "Finished read/write, write size = " << mOut.dataSize() << endl;        }    } while (err == -EINTR);        IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {        alog << "Our err: " << (void*)err << ", write consumed: "            << bwr.write_consumed << " (of " << mOut.dataSize()   << "), read consumed: " << bwr.read_consumed << endl;    }    if (err >= NO_ERROR) {        if (bwr.write_consumed > 0) {            if (bwr.write_consumed < (ssize_t)mOut.dataSize())                mOut.remove(0, bwr.write_consumed);            else                mOut.setDataSize(0);        }        if (bwr.read_consumed > 0) {            mIn.setDataSize(bwr.read_consumed);            mIn.setDataPosition(0);        }        IF_LOG_COMMANDS() {            TextOutput::Bundle _b(alog);            alog << "Remaining data size: " << mOut.dataSize() << endl;            alog << "Received commands from driver: " << indent;            const void* cmds = mIn.data();            const void* end = mIn.data() + mIn.dataSize();            alog << HexDump(cmds, mIn.dataSize()) << endl;            while (cmds < end) cmds = printReturnCommand(alog, cmds);            alog << dedent;        }        return NO_ERROR;    }        return err;}
        這裡doReceive和needRead均為1,有興趣的讀者可以自已分析一下。因此,這裡告訴Binder驅動程式,先執行write操作,再執行read操作,下面我們將會看到。

        最後,通過ioctl(mProcess->mDriverFD, BINDER_WRITE_READ, &bwr)進行到Binder驅動程式的binder_ioctl函式,我們只關注cmd為BINDER_WRITE_READ的邏輯:

static long binder_ioctl(struct file *filp, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)int ret; struct binder_proc *proc = filp->private_data; struct binder_thread *thread; unsigned int size = _IOC_SIZE(cmd); void __user *ubuf = (void __user *)arg; /*printk(KERN_INFO "binder_ioctl: %d:%d %x %lx\n", proc->pid, current->pid, cmd, arg);*/ ret = wait_event_interruptible(binder_user_error_wait, binder_stop_on_user_error < 2); if (ret)  return ret; mutex_lock(&binder_lock); thread = binder_get_thread(proc); if (thread == NULL) {  ret = -ENOMEM;  goto err; } switch (cmd) { case BINDER_WRITE_READ: {  struct binder_write_read bwr;  if (size != sizeof(struct binder_write_read)) {   ret = -EINVAL;   goto err;  }  if (copy_from_user(&bwr, ubuf, sizeof(bwr))) {   ret = -EFAULT;   goto err;  }  if (binder_debug_mask & BINDER_DEBUG_READ_WRITE)   printk(KERN_INFO "binder: %d:%d write %ld at %08lx, read %ld at %08lx\n",   proc->pid, thread->pid, bwr.write_size, bwr.write_buffer, bwr.read_size, bwr.read_buffer);  if (bwr.write_size > 0) {   ret = binder_thread_write(proc, thread, (void __user *)bwr.write_buffer, bwr.write_size, &bwr.write_consumed);   if (ret < 0) {    bwr.read_consumed = 0;    if (copy_to_user(ubuf, &bwr, sizeof(bwr)))     ret = -EFAULT;    goto err;   }  }  if (bwr.read_size > 0) {   ret = binder_thread_read(proc, thread, (void __user *)bwr.read_buffer, bwr.read_size, &bwr.read_consume