匯流排、裝置、驅動,也就是bus、device、driver,在核心裡都有對應的結構體,在include/linux/device.h 裡定義。

Device.h (linux-3.4.2\include\linux)

1、匯流排、裝置、驅動三者的關係


2、結構體

(1)匯流排結構體

struct bus_type {
	const char		*name;                                                    /*匯流排名*/
	const char		*dev_name;
	struct device		*dev_root;
	struct bus_attribute	*bus_attrs;
	struct device_attribute	*dev_attrs;//裝置屬性
	struct driver_attribute	*drv_attrs;//驅動屬性
  //裝置驅動匹配函式
	int (*match)(struct device *dev, struct device_driver *drv);
	int (*uevent)(struct device *dev, struct kobj_uevent_env *env);
	int (*probe)(struct device *dev);
	int (*remove)(struct device *dev);
	void (*shutdown)(struct device *dev);

	int (*suspend)(struct device *dev, pm_message_t state);
	int (*resume)(struct device *dev);

	const struct dev_pm_ops *pm;

	struct iommu_ops *iommu_ops;

	struct subsys_private *p;
};

如平臺匯流排
struct bus_type platform_bus_type = {
	.name		= "platform",
	.dev_attrs	= platform_dev_attrs,
	.match		= platform_match,
	.uevent		= platform_uevent,
	.pm		= &platform_dev_pm_ops,
};
匯流排註冊:
#define bus_register(subsys)			\
({						\
	static struct lock_class_key __key;	\
	__bus_register(subsys, &__key);	\
})


int __bus_register(struct bus_type *bus, struct lock_class_key *key)
{
	int retval;
	struct subsys_private *priv;

	priv = kzalloc(sizeof(struct subsys_private), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!priv)
		return -ENOMEM;

	priv->bus = bus;
	bus->p = priv;

	BLOCKING_INIT_NOTIFIER_HEAD(&priv->bus_notifier);

	retval = kobject_set_name(&priv->subsys.kobj, "%s", bus->name);
	if (retval)
		goto out;

	priv->subsys.kobj.kset = bus_kset;
	priv->subsys.kobj.ktype = &bus_ktype;
	priv->drivers_autoprobe = 1;

	retval = kset_register(&priv->subsys);
	if (retval)
		goto out;

	retval = bus_create_file(bus, &bus_attr_uevent);
	if (retval)
		goto bus_uevent_fail;

	priv->devices_kset = kset_create_and_add("devices", NULL,
						 &priv->subsys.kobj);
	if (!priv->devices_kset) {
		retval = -ENOMEM;
		goto bus_devices_fail;
	}

	priv->drivers_kset = kset_create_and_add("drivers", NULL,
						 &priv->subsys.kobj);
	if (!priv->drivers_kset) {
		retval = -ENOMEM;
		goto bus_drivers_fail;
	}

	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&priv->interfaces);
	__mutex_init(&priv->mutex, "subsys mutex", key);
	klist_init(&priv->klist_devices, klist_devices_get, klist_devices_put);
	klist_init(&priv->klist_drivers, NULL, NULL);

	retval = add_probe_files(bus);
	if (retval)
		goto bus_probe_files_fail;

	retval = bus_add_attrs(bus);
	if (retval)
		goto bus_attrs_fail;

	pr_debug("bus: '%s': registered\n", bus->name);
	return 0;

bus_attrs_fail:
	remove_probe_files(bus);
bus_probe_files_fail:
	kset_unregister(bus->p->drivers_kset);
bus_drivers_fail:
	kset_unregister(bus->p->devices_kset);
bus_devices_fail:
	bus_remove_file(bus, &bus_attr_uevent);
bus_uevent_fail:
	kset_unregister(&bus->p->subsys);
out:
	kfree(bus->p);
	bus->p = NULL;
	return retval;
}


(2)裝置結構體

struct device {
	struct device		*parent;               //指向父裝置的指標

	struct device_private	*p;

	struct kobject kobj;                   //代表自身
	const char		*init_name; /* initial name of the device */
	const struct device_type *type;

	struct mutex		mutex;	/* mutex to synchronize calls to
					 * its driver.
					 */

	struct bus_type	*bus;		/* type of bus device is on */         /* 所屬的匯流排 */
	struct device_driver *driver;	/* which driver has allocated this /* 匹配的驅動*/
					   device */
	void		*platform_data;	/* Platform specific data, device
					   core doesn't touch it */
	struct dev_pm_info	power;
	struct dev_pm_domain	*pm_domain;

#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
	int		numa_node;	/* NUMA node this device is close to */
#endif
	u64		*dma_mask;	/* dma mask (if dma'able device) */
	u64		coherent_dma_mask;/* Like dma_mask, but for
					     alloc_coherent mappings as
					     not all hardware supports
					     64 bit addresses for consistent
					     allocations such descriptors. */

	struct device_dma_parameters *dma_parms;

	struct list_head	dma_pools;	/* dma pools (if dma'ble) */

	struct dma_coherent_mem	*dma_mem; /* internal for coherent mem
					     override */
	/* arch specific additions */
	struct dev_archdata	archdata;

	struct device_node	*of_node; /* associated device tree node */

	dev_t			devt;	/* dev_t, creates the sysfs "dev" */  裝置號
	u32			id;	/* device instance */

	spinlock_t		devres_lock;
	struct list_head	devres_head;

	struct klist_node	knode_class;
	struct class		*class;
	const struct attribute_group **groups;	/* optional groups */

	void	(*release)(struct device *dev);//所有向核心註冊的裝置都必須有release()方法
};
註冊裝置:
int device_register(struct device *dev)
{
	device_initialize(dev);
	return device_add(dev);
}
int device_add(struct device *dev)
{
	struct device *parent = NULL;
	struct kobject *kobj;
	struct class_interface *class_intf;
	int error = -EINVAL;

	dev = get_device(dev);
	if (!dev)
		goto done;

	if (!dev->p) {
		error = device_private_init(dev);
		if (error)
			goto done;
	}

	/*
	 * for statically allocated devices, which should all be converted
	 * some day, we need to initialize the name. We prevent reading back
	 * the name, and force the use of dev_name()
	 */
	if (dev->init_name) {
		dev_set_name(dev, "%s", dev->init_name);
		dev->init_name = NULL;
	}

	/* subsystems can specify simple device enumeration */
	if (!dev_name(dev) && dev->bus && dev->bus->dev_name)
		dev_set_name(dev, "%s%u", dev->bus->dev_name, dev->id);

	if (!dev_name(dev)) {
		error = -EINVAL;
		goto name_error;
	}

	pr_debug("device: '%s': %s\n", dev_name(dev), __func__);

	parent = get_device(dev->parent);
	kobj = get_device_parent(dev, parent);
	if (kobj)
		dev->kobj.parent = kobj;

	/* use parent numa_node */
	if (parent)
		set_dev_node(dev, dev_to_node(parent));

	/* first, register with generic layer. */
	/* we require the name to be set before, and pass NULL */
	error = kobject_add(&dev->kobj, dev->kobj.parent, NULL);
	if (error)
		goto Error;

	/* notify platform of device entry */
	if (platform_notify)
		platform_notify(dev);

	error = device_create_file(dev, &uevent_attr);
	if (error)
		goto attrError;

	if (MAJOR(dev->devt)) {
		error = device_create_file(dev, &devt_attr);
		if (error)
			goto ueventattrError;

		error = device_create_sys_dev_entry(dev);
		if (error)
			goto devtattrError;

		devtmpfs_create_node(dev);
	}

	error = device_add_class_symlinks(dev);
	if (error)
		goto SymlinkError;
	error = device_add_attrs(dev);
	if (error)
		goto AttrsError;
	error = bus_add_device(dev);
	if (error)
		goto BusError;
	error = dpm_sysfs_add(dev);
	if (error)
		goto DPMError;
	device_pm_add(dev);

	/* Notify clients of device addition.  This call must come
	 * after dpm_sysfs_add() and before kobject_uevent().
	 */
	if (dev->bus)
		blocking_notifier_call_chain(&dev->bus->p->bus_notifier,
					     BUS_NOTIFY_ADD_DEVICE, dev);

	kobject_uevent(&dev->kobj, KOBJ_ADD);
	bus_probe_device(dev);
	if (parent)
		klist_add_tail(&dev->p->knode_parent,
			       &parent->p->klist_children);

	if (dev->class) {
		mutex_lock(&dev->class->p->mutex);
		/* tie the class to the device */
		klist_add_tail(&dev->knode_class,
			       &dev->class->p->klist_devices);

		/* notify any interfaces that the device is here */
		list_for_each_entry(class_intf,
				    &dev->class->p->interfaces, node)
			if (class_intf->add_dev)
				class_intf->add_dev(dev, class_intf);
		mutex_unlock(&dev->class->p->mutex);
	}
done:
	put_device(dev);
	return error;
 DPMError:
	bus_remove_device(dev);
 BusError:
	device_remove_attrs(dev);
 AttrsError:
	device_remove_class_symlinks(dev);
 SymlinkError:
	if (MAJOR(dev->devt))
		devtmpfs_delete_node(dev);
	if (MAJOR(dev->devt))
		device_remove_sys_dev_entry(dev);
 devtattrError:
	if (MAJOR(dev->devt))
		device_remove_file(dev, &devt_attr);
 ueventattrError:
	device_remove_file(dev, &uevent_attr);
 attrError:
	kobject_uevent(&dev->kobj, KOBJ_REMOVE);
	kobject_del(&dev->kobj);
 Error:
	cleanup_device_parent(dev);
	if (parent)
		put_device(parent);
name_error:
	kfree(dev->p);
	dev->p = NULL;
	goto done;
}

平臺裝置的註冊,底層也是呼叫device_add()

int platform_device_register(struct platform_device *pdev)
{
	device_initialize(&pdev->dev);
	arch_setup_pdev_archdata(pdev);
	return platform_device_add(pdev);
}

int platform_device_add(struct platform_device *pdev)
{
	int i, ret = 0;

	if (!pdev)
		return -EINVAL;

	if (!pdev->dev.parent)
		pdev->dev.parent = &platform_bus;

	pdev->dev.bus = &platform_bus_type;

	if (pdev->id != -1)
		dev_set_name(&pdev->dev, "%s.%d", pdev->name,  pdev->id);
	else
		dev_set_name(&pdev->dev, "%s", pdev->name);

	for (i = 0; i < pdev->num_resources; i++) {
		struct resource *p, *r = &pdev->resource[i];

		if (r->name == NULL)
			r->name = dev_name(&pdev->dev);

		p = r->parent;
		if (!p) {
			if (resource_type(r) == IORESOURCE_MEM)
				p = &iomem_resource;
			else if (resource_type(r) == IORESOURCE_IO)
				p = &ioport_resource;
		}

		if (p && insert_resource(p, r)) {
			printk(KERN_ERR
			       "%s: failed to claim resource %d\n",
			       dev_name(&pdev->dev), i);
			ret = -EBUSY;
			goto failed;
		}
	}

	pr_debug("Registering platform device '%s'. Parent at %s\n",
		 dev_name(&pdev->dev), dev_name(pdev->dev.parent));

	ret = device_add(&pdev->dev);
	if (ret == 0)
		return ret;

 failed:
	while (--i >= 0) {
		struct resource *r = &pdev->resource[i];
		unsigned long type = resource_type(r);

		if (type == IORESOURCE_MEM || type == IORESOURCE_IO)
			release_resource(r);
	}

	return ret;
}

(3)驅動結構體

struct device_driver {
	const char		*name;    //裝置驅動程式的名字
	struct bus_type		*bus; //裝置驅動所屬匯流排

	struct module		*owner; //裝置驅動自身模組
	const char		*mod_name;	/* 驅動模組的名字 */

	bool suppress_bind_attrs;	/* disables bind/unbind via sysfs */

	const struct of_device_id	*of_match_table;

	int (*probe) (struct device *dev);
	int (*remove) (struct device *dev);
	void (*shutdown) (struct device *dev);
	int (*suspend) (struct device *dev, pm_message_t state);
	int (*resume) (struct device *dev);
	const struct attribute_group **groups;

	const struct dev_pm_ops *pm;

	struct driver_private *p;
};
驅動註冊
int driver_register(struct device_driver *drv)
{
	int ret;
	struct device_driver *other;

	BUG_ON(!drv->bus->p);

	if ((drv->bus->probe && drv->probe) ||
	    (drv->bus->remove && drv->remove) ||
	    (drv->bus->shutdown && drv->shutdown))
		printk(KERN_WARNING "Driver '%s' needs updating - please use "
			"bus_type methods\n", drv->name);

	other = driver_find(drv->name, drv->bus);
	if (other) {
		printk(KERN_ERR "Error: Driver '%s' is already registered, "
			"aborting...\n", drv->name);
		return -EBUSY;
	}

	ret = bus_add_driver(drv);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
	ret = driver_add_groups(drv, drv->groups);
	if (ret)
		bus_remove_driver(drv);
	return ret;
}

又如平臺驅動的註冊,最終也是呼叫了driver_register
int platform_driver_register(struct platform_driver *drv)
{
	drv->driver.bus = &platform_bus_type;
	if (drv->probe)
		drv->driver.probe = platform_drv_probe;
	if (drv->remove)
		drv->driver.remove = platform_drv_remove;
	if (drv->shutdown)
		drv->driver.shutdown = platform_drv_shutdown;

	return driver_register(&drv->driver);
}