現在,是比較有趣(也比較難)的非同步實現! 當檢視流程圖時,你需要知道Boost.Asio代表由Boost.Asio執行的一個非同步呼叫。例如do_read(),Boost.Asio和on_read()代表了從do_read()到on_read()的邏輯流程,但是你永遠不知道什麼時候輪到on_read()被呼叫,你只是知道你最終會呼叫它。

基於TCP的非同步客戶端

1.流程圖


2.實現

#ifdef WIN32
#define _WIN32_WINNT 0x0501
#include <stdio.h>
#endif

#include <boost/thread.hpp>
#include <boost/bind.hpp>
#include <boost/asio.hpp>
#include <boost/shared_ptr.hpp>
#include <boost/enable_shared_from_this.hpp>
using namespace boost::asio;
io_service service;

#define MEM_FN(x)       boost::bind(&self_type::x, shared_from_this())
#define MEM_FN1(x,y)    boost::bind(&self_type::x, shared_from_this(),y)
#define MEM_FN2(x,y,z)  boost::bind(&self_type::x, shared_from_this(),y,z)

/** simple connection to server:
- logs in just with username (no password)
- all connections are initiated by the client: client asks, server answers
- server disconnects any client that hasn't pinged for 5 seconds

Possible requests:
- gets a list of all connected clients
- ping: the server answers either with "ping ok" or "ping client_list_changed"
*/
class talk_to_svr : public boost::enable_shared_from_this<talk_to_svr>
	, boost::noncopyable {
	typedef talk_to_svr self_type;
	talk_to_svr(const std::string & username)
		: sock_(service), started_(true), username_(username), timer_(service) {}
	void start(ip::tcp::endpoint ep) {
		sock_.async_connect(ep, MEM_FN1(on_connect, _1));
	}
public:
	typedef boost::system::error_code error_code;
	typedef boost::shared_ptr<talk_to_svr> ptr;

	static ptr start(ip::tcp::endpoint ep, const std::string & username) {
		ptr new_(new talk_to_svr(username));
		new_->start(ep);
		return new_;
	}
	void stop() {
		if (!started_) return;
		std::cout << "stopping " << username_ << std::endl;
		started_ = false;
		sock_.close();
	}
	bool started() { return started_; }
private:
	void on_connect(const error_code & err) {
		if (!err)      do_write("login " + username_ + "\n");
		else            stop();
	}
	void on_read(const error_code & err, size_t bytes) {
		if (err) stop();
		if (!started()) return;
		// process the msg
		std::string msg(read_buffer_, bytes);
		if (msg.find("login ") == 0) on_login();
		else if (msg.find("ping") == 0) on_ping(msg);
		else if (msg.find("clients ") == 0) on_clients(msg);
		else std::cerr << "invalid msg " << msg << std::endl;
	}

	void on_login() {
		std::cout << username_ << " logged in" << std::endl;
		do_ask_clients();
	}
	void on_ping(const std::string & msg) {
		std::istringstream in(msg);
		std::string answer;
		in >> answer >> answer;
		if (answer == "client_list_changed") do_ask_clients();
		else postpone_ping();
	}
	void on_clients(const std::string & msg) {
		std::string clients = msg.substr(8);
		std::cout << username_ << ", new client list:" << clients;
		postpone_ping();
	}

	void do_ping() {
		do_write("ping\n");
	}
	void postpone_ping() {
		// note: even though the server wants a ping every 5 secs, we randomly 
		// don't ping that fast - so that the server will randomly disconnect us
		int millis = rand() % 7000;
		std::cout << username_ << " postponing ping " << millis
			<< " millis" << std::endl;
		timer_.expires_from_now(boost::posix_time::millisec(millis));
		timer_.async_wait(MEM_FN(do_ping));
	}
	void do_ask_clients() {
		do_write("ask_clients\n");
	}

	void on_write(const error_code & err, size_t bytes) {
		do_read();
	}
	void do_read() {
		async_read(sock_, buffer(read_buffer_),
			MEM_FN2(read_complete, _1, _2), MEM_FN2(on_read, _1, _2));
	}
	void do_write(const std::string & msg) {
		if (!started()) return;
		std::copy(msg.begin(), msg.end(), write_buffer_);
		sock_.async_write_some(buffer(write_buffer_, msg.size()),
			MEM_FN2(on_write, _1, _2));
	}
	size_t read_complete(const boost::system::error_code & err, size_t bytes) {
		if (err) return 0;
		bool found = std::find(read_buffer_, read_buffer_ + bytes, '\n') < read_buffer_ + bytes;
		// we read one-by-one until we get to enter, no buffering
		return found ? 0 : 1;
	}

private:
	ip::tcp::socket sock_;
	enum { max_msg = 1024 };
	char read_buffer_[max_msg];
	char write_buffer_[max_msg];
	bool started_;
	std::string username_;
	deadline_timer timer_;
};

int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
	// connect several clients
	ip::tcp::endpoint ep(ip::address::from_string("127.0.0.1"), 8001);
	char* names[] = { "John", "James", "Lucy", "Tracy", "Frank", "Abby", 0 };
	for (char ** name = names; *name; ++name) {
		talk_to_svr::start(ep, *name);
		boost::this_thread::sleep(boost::posix_time::millisec(100));
	}
	service.run();
	system("pause");
}

注意每一個read操作都會觸發一個ping操作
1.當read操作結束時,on_read()被呼叫
2.on_read()呼叫on_login(),on_ping()或者on_clients()
3.每一個方法要麼發出一個ping,要麼請求客戶端列表
4.如果我們請求客戶端列表,當read操作接收到它們時,它會發出一個ping操作。


還需注意的是這裡的postpone ping操作,是基於boost::asio::deadline_timer實現的非同步定時。

參考連結:http://download.csdn.net/download/caoshangpa/10229882